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How long each hemodialysis session lasts depends on how well your kidneys work, how much fluid you gained since your last dialysis session, how much waste has gathered in your blood since your last dialysis session, your weight, the type of hemodialysis machine being used.

Did you know?

During a hemodialysis session, your blood flows a little bit at a time through a special filter inside the machine.

Dialysis is a life - support treatment that uses a special machine to filter harmful wastes, salt, and excess fluid from your blood. This restores the blood to a normal, healthy balance. Dialysis replaces many of the kidney's important functions. There are different types of Dialysis

Hemodialysis: Blood is filtered using dialyzer and dialysis machine.
Peritoneal Dialysis: Blood is filtered inside the body after the abdomen is filled with a special cleaning solution.

Did you know?

Patients often need dialysis treatments several times a week

Your kidneys help filter waste, excess fluid, and toxins from your blood. They are also important for blood cell production and bone health. If kidneys don't work properly, harmful substances build up in the body, blood pressure can rise, and too much fluid can collect in the body's tissues, which leads to swelling, called edema.

Did you know?

If your kidneys fail, you will need a life-saving treatment called dialysis to take over their job

If you've already lost some kidney function, or your health care provider tells you that you're likely to have more kidney damage in the future, ask for a referral to a Nephrologist (a kidney disease specialist). A nephrologists can provide specialized testing, evaluate your condition, and talk to you about possible ways to slow down the progress of kidney disease.

Did you know?

Medical care with early intervention can change the course of chronic kidney disease and prevent the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant.

A key to healthy eating is choosing foods lower in salt and sodium. Sodium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods and is the major part of table salt. Adding salt to food is an acquired habit and not an inborn trait. The current recommendation is to consume less than 2.4 grams (2,400 milligrams [mg]) of sodium a day. That equals 6 grams (about 1 teaspoon) of table salt a day but an average Indian diet contains 10 – 15g of salt per day. The 6 grams include ALL salt and sodium consumed, including that used in cooking and at the table.

Did you know?

These lower-sodium diets also can keep blood pressure from rising and help blood pressure medicines work better.

A nail fungus in the early stages of infection occurs under the nail as has a cloudy appearance – yellowish tinge. As the nail fungus spreads, it can also begin to infect the surrounding skin and nails. If the infection is left untreated it can cause the nail to become badly damaged where it may break or fall off. The fungus then causes the nail to become thick and powdery and more prone to further breakage. If a nail fungus is left untreated, it can spread and infect the other surrounding nails also making them dry, chalky and thick.

Did you know?

Certain signs and symptoms that will warn you of a nail fungus include but are not limited to nails becoming flaky, brittle, chipping regularly; yellowing, brown black tinge or have spots become thick and white and pain occurs while wearing shoes; bad smell from nails; stinging pain while walking etc.

Anyone can get nail fungus, but some people are more susceptible than others. Those affected can contract the disease with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Factors that contribute to the condition include shared use of infected implements or environments, unsanitary nail bars, abnormal pH levels of the skin, trauma to the nail, poor hygiene of the foot or feet, susceptibility (i.e. decreased immunity) of the person who has contact with the fungus.

Did you know?

The fungi can live in warm puddles on tile floors and inside foot baths such as whirlpools, waiting for someone to step in and pick up the fungi spores.

A pleural effusion will show up as an area of whiteness on a standard Chest X-ray; however it can be more accurately confirmed by an Ultrasound of the chest or even CT scan of the chest if required. Once a pleural effusion is diagnosed, the cause must be determined. Pleural fluid is drawn out of the pleural space in a process called thoracentesis. A needle is inserted through the back of the chest wall in the sixth, seventh, or eighth intercostal space on the midaxillary line, into the pleural space. The fluid may then be sent to lab for evaluation.

Did you know?

Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the pleural effusion. 90% of the patients reporting to the OPD in India are suffering from Tubercular Pleural Effusion.

Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers, in the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Pleural effusion is usually diagnosed on the basis of medical history and physical exam, and confirmed by Chest X-Ray and clinical signs in the patient, such as decreased movement of the chest on the affected side, stony dullness to percussion over the fluid, diminished breath sounds on the affected side.

Did you know?

Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during ventilation.

Folliculitis is generally asymptomatic, but it may be pruritic or even painful. Commonly affected areas are the beard, posterior neck, occipital scalp, and axillae. Often a continuum of folliculitis, furunculosis (furuncles), arises in hair-bearing areas as tender, erythematous, fluctuant nodules that rupture with purulent discharge. Carbuncles are larger and deeper inflammatory nodules, often with purulent drainage and commonly occur on the nape of the neck, back, or thighs.

Did you know?

Carbuncles are often tender and painful and occasionally accompanied by fever and malaise.

If you have diabetes, work with your health care provider to keep your blood sugar levels under the best possible control. A program of diet, regular exercise, glucose monitoring, and medications to control blood sugars and protect kidney function can help. If you have high blood pressure, work with your health care provider to get your blood pressure within target ranges.

Did you know?

A program of diet, regular exercise, and medications can help.

The key to prevention or delay of severe kidney disease is early detection and aggressive intervention -- while there's still time to slow down the progression to kidney failure. Diabetes and high blood pressure account for two thirds of all cases of chronic kidney disease. By aggressively managing diabetes and high blood pressure with diet, exercise, and medications, you may be able to prevent kidney failure and help keep as much kidney function as possible.

Did you know?

Since diabetes and high blood pressure put you at risk of kidney disease, know where you stand with these risks.

Sarcoidosis of the lung is primarily an interstitial lung disease in which the inflammatory process involves the alveoli, small bronchi, and small blood vessels. In acute and sub-acute cases, physical examination usually reveals dry rales. Sarcoidosis may be asymptomatic or chronic. It commonly improves or clears up spontaneously.

Did you know?

More than two-thirds of people with lung Sarcoidosis have no symptoms after 9 years.

Sarcoidosis disease is a syndrome involving abnormal collections of chronic inflammatory cells (granulomas) that can form as nodules in multiple organs. Pulmonary localization is by far the most common in individuals with Sarcoidosis. About 90% of patients have an abnormal chest X-ray at some time during the course of their disease.

Did you know?

Overall, about 50% develop permanent pulmonary abnormalities, and 5 to 15% have progressive fibrosis of the lung parenchyma.

Montelukast is a Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of Bronchial Asthma and Allergic Respiratory Diseases and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. Medical uses includes Bronchial Asthma, exercise induced bronchospasm, allergic rhinitis, and urticaria.

Did you know?

It is mainly used as a complementary therapy in adults in addition to inhaled corticosteroids, if they alone do not bring the desired effect.

The correct procedure for using an MDI is to first fully exhale, place the mouth-piece of the device into the mouth, and having just started to inhale at a moderate rate, depress the canister to release the medicine. The aerosolized medication is drawn into the lungs by continuing to inhale deeply before holding the breath for 10 seconds to allow the aerosol to settle onto the walls of the bronchial and other airways of the lung.

Did you know?

Other types of inhalers include Dry Powder Inhalers and Nebulizers.

Proper footwear is important for bone and joint health. Did you know that women who wear high heeled shoes have seven to 10 times’ greater chance of developing joint pain and problems? It's a good idea to vary the heel height of the shoes we wear. For those who like high heels, heels lower than three inches seem to be best for bone and joint health. It's also important that all shoes, including tennis and athletic shoes, fit properly.

Did you know?

Toes need room and there should be good arch support. Some sort of cushion, especially under the ball and heel areas of our feet, is recommended.

People who drink alcohol are more likely to develop oral cancer than people who don't drink. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol that a person consumes. The risk increases even more if the person both drinks alcohol and uses tobacco .Cancer of the lip can be caused by exposure to the sun. Using a lotion or lip balm that has a sunscreen can reduce the risk.

Did you know?

Wearing a hat with a brim can also block the sun's harmful rays. The risk of cancer of the lip increases if the person also smokes.

Sitting or standing all day, day after day, can cause joint pain with no or minimal form of movement by an individual. We need to vary our routines which may in any form like walking, climbing stairs, stepping, to give both our bodies and joints variety of postures and rest periods which are quit essential for normal functioning of our bones.

Did you know?

Getting up and moving around is helpful to break up a routine and keep our bodies in shape.

Tobacco: Tobacco use accounts for most oral cancers. Smoking cigarettes, cigars, or pipes; using chewing tobacco; and dipping snuff are all linked to oral cancer. The use of other tobacco products (such as bidis and kreteks) may also increase the risk of oral cancer. Heavy smokers who use tobacco for a long time are most at risk.

Did you know?

The risk is even higher for tobacco users who drink alcohol heavily. In fact, three out of four oral cancers occur in people who use alcohol, tobacco, or both alcohol and tobacco.

People who have had head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing another primary head and neck cancer. Smoking increases this risk. Common symptoms of oral cancer include any ulcer in any part of the mouth that does not heal, patches inside your mouth or on your lips that are white, a mixture of red and white, or red White patches (leukoplakia) are the most common. White patches sometimes become malignant.

Did you know?

Mixed red and white patches (erythroleukoplakia) are more likely than white patches to become malignant.

Nasal congestion can interfere with hearing and speech development. Significant congestion may interfere with sleep. A stuffy nose is usually caused by a virus or bacteria. Causes include common cold, flu and sinus infection. The congestion typically goes away by itself within a week. Congestion can also be caused by hay fever or other allergies and nasal polyps. The congestion typically goes away by itself within a week. Please get in touch with your doctor in case of increased throat pain, or white or yellow spots on the tonsils or other parts of the throat or coughing episodes that last longer than a week.

Did you know?

Congestion is often worse when you are lying down. Keep upright, or at least keep the head elevated.

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Infections of the urinary tract (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice pain or burning when you use the bathroom, fever, tiredness or shakiness, an urge to use the bathroom often, pressure in your lower belly, urine that smells bad or looks cloudy or reddish, and less frequently, nausea or back pain. If you think you have a UTI, it is important to see your doctor. Antibiotics prescribed by your doctor will usually cure a bladder infection. It may help to drink lots of water and other fluids and to urinate often, emptying your bladder each time.

Did you know?

Most urinary tract infections are bladder infections. A bladder infection usually is not serious if it is treated right away. If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to your kidneys. A kidney infection is serious and can cause permanent damage.

Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimeter or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not.

Did you know?

It takes 15 years or fewer for a polyp to turn cancerous.

RSV is a very contagious virus and the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children younger than age one. RSV passes from person to person like a cold virus—when someone with RSV coughs or sneezes, droplets travel through the air to others nearby or land on surfaces that others will touch.

Did you know?

It can enter your body when you touch your eyes or nose after touching RSV germs.

Symptoms of RSV infection are similar to other respiratory infections like coughing, sneezing, stuffy or runny nose, mild sore throat, fever, loss of appetite, possible wheezing and trouble sleeping. In very young infants, the only symptoms may be irritability, decreased activity, and breathing difficulties. RSV can be prevented by covering your coughs and sneezes with a tissue or your elbow, washing your hands frequently and correctly (with soap and water for 15–20 seconds), avoid sharing cups and eating utensils with others, use a disinfectant to clean hard surfaces that many people touch and where germs can live (such as doorknobs, counters, telephones, remote controls, keyboards, etc.).

Did you know?

Young children, especially those born prematurely, are most at risk for RSV.

Many people think that a nose gets congested (stuffy) from too much thick mucus. However, in most cases, the nose becomes congested when the tissues lining it become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. Newborn infants must breathe through the nose. Nasal congestion in an infant's first few months of life can interfere with nursing, and in rare cases can cause serious breathing problems.

Did you know?

Nasal congestion in older children and adolescents is usually just an annoyance, but it can cause other difficulties.

Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease. It causes chronic inflammation of the cells that line the rectum and colon (large intestine). This inflammation can lead to sores called ulcers, which may bleed and interfere with digestion. There are medications to calm the inflammation.

Did you know?

Abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea are the most common warning signs of ulcerative colitis.

Red patches (erythroplakia) are brightly colored, smooth areas that often become malignant:

- A sore on your lip or in your mouth that won't heal
- Bleeding in your mouth. Loose teeth
- Difficulty or pain when swallowing
- Difficulty wearing dentures
- A lump in your neck
- An ear ache

Anyone with these symptoms should see a doctor or dentist so that problem can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.

Did you know?

Most often, these symptoms do not mean cancer. An infection or another problem can cause the same symptoms.

Many people with oral cancer want to take an active part in making decisions about their medical care. It is natural to want to learn all you can about your disease and your treatment choices. Oral cancer treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments.

Did you know?

At any stage of disease, people with oral cancer may have treatment to control pain and other symptoms, to relieve the side effects of therapy, and to ease emotional and practical problems.

A healthy diet can help you look and feel your best. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins. Diet rich in vitamin C and 6-8 litres water per day promote younger looking skin. Smoking makes your skin look older and contributes to wrinkles.

Did you know?

Smoking narrows the tiny blood vessels in the outermost layers of skin, which decreases blood flow.

Regardless of the type of exercise you do, or how heavy the workout, our bodies need time to repair. Someone who does hours of intense exercising daily will have more problems with chronic joint pain than someone who allows their body to recuperate.

Did you know?

Our muscles, tendons and ligaments all need time to rest and repair after a hard workout. That's what causes them to strengthen over time.

Our bodies need to be warmed up in order to work properly and avoid excess injuries. This allows our tendons to flex and become suppler, allows the muscles to loosen up and work better, and gets the blood flowing through our body. Both avid and occasional exercisers should consider changing the type of exercise we do.

Did you know?

Impact style exercising, such as step aerobics or kick boxing, is harder on our joints than exercises such as yoga and water based workouts.

People, who exercise a lot, especially those who work to build muscle, must stretch prior to working out. Bodybuilding and weight lifting related joint pain problems can be caused by tendinitis, an inflammation or irritation of the tendons. This type of joint pain can be reduced or eliminated by stretching and warming up tendons before working them too hard.

Did you know?

This makes them more flexible and able to handle the added weight or exercise loads we put on them.

One in three adults suffers from some form of chronic joint pain. When possible, changes in lifestyle can help alleviate pain and improve quality of life. Helpful tips for joint and bone health include weight loss extra body weight creates strain on our joints, particularly the knee joints.

Did you know?

Losing as little as 10 pounds of body weight can help reduce pain.

The goal of consolidation is to kill any leukemia cells that may be present even though they don't show up in tests. If these cells re-grow, they could cause a relapse. The goal of maintenance also is to prevent any remaining leukemia cells from growing. This may be done using lower doses of chemotherapy than those used during induction or consolidation. This is only used in people with ALL and a few rare forms of AML.

Did you know?

Sometimes leukemia gets worse in spite of treatments. Sometimes it gets better, or "goes into remission." Sometimes it comes back, or "relapses." Even when that happens, there are several treatments that may help to cure the leukemia or help you live longer.

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to fight cancer. It is the usual treatment for acute leukemia. For most people, that means receiving drugs in stages. Correct Treatment depends on exact subtype of the disease. Chemo therapy is divided into induction, consolidation and maintenance phases.

Did you know?

The goal of induction is to kill leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow to induce remission. During remission, there are no signs or symptoms of leukemia.

Symptoms may depend on what type of leukemia you have, but common symptoms include: Fever and night sweats, headaches, bruising or bleeding easily, bone or joint pain, a swollen or painful belly from an enlarged spleen. swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, neck, or groin, getting a lot of infections, feeling very tired or weak.

Did you know?

Losing weight and not feeling hungry are also the noticeable symptoms of leukemia.

Experts don't know what causes leukemia. But some things are known to increase the risk of some kinds of leukemia. These things are called risk factors. You are more likely to get leukemia if you:Were exposed to large amounts of radiation. Were exposed to certain chemicals at work, such as benzene. Had some types of chemotherapy to treat another cancer. Have Down syndrome or some other genetic problems and smoking.

Did you know?

In majority of cases, doctors are not able to pin point the exact reason for leukemia in individual cases.

They don't do the work of normal white blood cells, they grow faster than normal cells, and they don't stop growing when they should. Over time, leukemia cells can crowd out the normal blood cells. This can lead to serious problems such as anemia, bleeding, and infections.

Did you know?

Leukemia cells can also spread to the lymph nodes or other organs and cause swelling or pain.

Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. It starts in the bone marrow, the soft tissue inside most bones. Bone marrow is where blood cells are made. When we are healthy, our bone marrow makes White blood cells, which help our body fight infection. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of our body. Platelets, helps in prevention of bleeding by forming blood clots.

Did you know?

When one has leukemia, the bone marrow starts to make a lot of abnormal white blood cells, called leukemia cells.

Babies with congestive heart failure because of volume overload to the lungs may be treated with diuretics such as Lasix (Furosemide) and Aldactone (Spironolactone). These medications can help to reduce the volume of fluid in the lung, which makes it easier for the infant to breathe and eat. Digoxin may also be prescribed. It increases the squeeze (contraction) of the heart muscle and helps it to function more effectively. For those infants whose feeding is affected, nutritional additives may be used to fortify the baby's milk. In more severe cases, nourishment with a naso-gastric tube may be necessary. If slow growth and other symptoms continue despite treatment with medication, surgery may be required to close the ventricular septal defect. The benefits of this surgery are usually dramatic: paleness and rapid breathing are corrected and the rate of growth becomes normal. The mortality risk in this type of surgery is very low.

Did you know?

VSDs may be closed by patching (see animation) or suturing during open heart surgery. Small defects may be closed with simple sutures using a monofilament thread made of Prolene or Polypropylene. Larger holes may be covered with patches made of pieces of pericardium (the membrane that covers the heart) or of silk or a synthetic material such as Dacron or Teflon.

TREATMENT TRANSCATHETER CLOSURE

An alternative to open heart surgery in the treatment of ASDs is the use of devices that are introduced into the heart with the use of a catheter during a catheterization procedure (see animation at right). Before closing an ASD with a transcatheter device, the size of the hole or holes must be determined. One way to accomplish this is to use the Amplatzer Sizing Balloon. A catheter containing a balloon is introduced into the heart and the balloon is inflated to measure the diameter of the ASD. There are radiopaque markers at regular intervals on the balloon which may be read radio metrically, with ultrasound, or with a sizing plate.

Did you know?

When the ASD has been accurately measured, an appropriately sized septal occluder is introduced in a separate catheterization to close the hole. The catheter enters from the groin or forearm, and continues into the heart via the Vena Cava.

TREATMENT THROUGH SURGICAL CLOSURE

ASDs may be closed by patching or suturing during open heart surgery. Minimally invasive surgical repair, involving special instruments that are inserted into 3 or 4 holes in the chest, may also be possible.In open heart surgery, small defects may be closed with simple sutures using a monofilament thread made of Prolene or Polypropylene.

Did you know?

Larger holes may be covered with patches made of pieces of pericardium (the membrane that covers the heart) or of silk or a synthetic material such as Dacron or Teflon (see animation at left).

Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the blood. The body makes cholesterol as well as gets it from food products. Cholesterol is important for synthesis of hormone called Cortisol. Too much cholesterol can deposit in the blood vessels. This deposited cholesterol can narrow vessels and lead to a blockage, decreasing blood from getting to a certain area of the body. When this occurs in the heart vessels, it is called coronary heart disease and can cause a heart attack. In people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), heart disease is 30 times more common.

Did you know?

Though medicines are available to lower cholesterol in case of heart diseases but these medicines work best when dietary and lifestyle changes are made simultaneously.

Awareness helps, it is therefore important to use preventive strategies during winters to keep your heart healthy. If you are at risk and want to get on to a healthy heart exercise regimen, start slow. The cardiovascular system can adapt to slow, progressive changes, but has difficult time adapting to sudden changes. When you exercise, do it for just 15minutes at a stretch and let the body recover, but don't go inside and have a cup of coffee or smoke a cigarette because caffeine and nicotine just put that much more burden on the heart. Restart after 15 minutes. Don't overdo the exercises and get an evaluation done by a doctor before starting an exercise regimen.

Did you know?

By keeping the following in mind you could avoid heart attack:

BP should be less than 140/90mmsHg
Fasting sugar should be less than 100mg/dl
Blood cholesterol less than 150 mg/dl
Avoid tobacco in any form
Check your weight
Avoid getting stressed out.

Also known as candidiasis, oral thrush is a yeast infection that develops inside the mouth. The condition results in white patches that are often cottage cheese-like in consistency on the surfaces of the mouth and tongue. Oral thrush is most commonly seen in infants and the elderly, especially denture wearers, or in people with compromised immune systems. People with diabetes and people taking inhaled steroids for asthma or lung disease also can also get thrush. Oral thrush is more likely to occur after the use of antibiotics, which may kill the "good" bacteria in the mouth.

Did you know?

Eating plain yogurt with live and active cultures may help restore the proper fauna in your mouth. Additionally, medications may be used to combat the infection.

Antibiotic resistance occurs when germs outsmart drugs. The widespread overuse as well as inappropriate use of antibiotics fuels antibiotic resistance. Additionally, the overuse of antibiotics causes even more problems. Therefore take antibiotics exactly as the doctor prescribes. Do not skip doses. Complete the prescribed course of treatment, even when you start feeling better.

Did you know?

Only take antibiotics prescribed for you do not share or use leftover antibiotics. Do not ask for antibiotics when your doctor thinks you do not need them. Prevent infections by practicing good hand hygiene and getting recommended vaccines.

Preterm babies lose more water through the skin or respiratory tract than babies born at full term. Also, the kidneys in a premature baby have not grown enough to control water levels in the body. Such babies can become dehydrated or over hydrated. Human milk from the baby’s own mother is the recommended diet especially for those born early and at very low birth weight.

Did you know?

Research suggests that breast milk protects babies against infections and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as well as NEC.

In the NICU, babies are weighed every day. It's normal for babies to lose weight in the first few days of life. Most of this loss is water weight. Most premature infants should start gaining weight within a few days of birth. The desired weight gain depends on the baby’s size, gestational age and health.

Did you know?

It might be as little as 5 grams a day for a tiny baby at 24 weeks, or 20 grams a day for a larger baby at 33 weeks.

In the NICU, babies are weighed every day. It's normal for babies to lose weight in the first few days of life. Most of this loss is water weight. Most premature infants should start gaining weight within a few days of birth. The desired weight gain depends on the baby’s size, gestational age and health.

Did you know?

It might be as little as 5 grams a day for a tiny baby at 24 weeks, or 20 grams a day for a larger baby at 33 weeks.

Necrotizing enter colitis is the death of intestinal tissue. It most often affects premature or sick babies. A.D.A.M. Necrotizing enter colitis occurs when the lining of the intestinal wall dies and the tissue falls off. The cause for this disorder is unknown. However, it is thought that a decrease in blood flow to the bowel keeps the bowel from producing mucus that protects the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteria in the intestine may also be a cause.

Did you know?

This disorder usually develops in an infant that is already ill or premature, and most often develops while the infant is still in the hospital.

Overweight people are tactfully referred to as ‘healthy’. Avoid over-eating, especially during festival time. Can’t resist your favorite snack? Take a small portion only, eat it slowly. Avoid second helpings. At parties and functions don’t try to sample every item on the menu. Pick a few and enjoy!

Did you know?

Never go in for buffets or ‘all you can eat’ offers. Order from the ala carte menu in restaurants. Load up on the salads and water. Above all, remember – it’s far easier to avoid the midriff bulge than shed it off later.

Shoe evaluation of proper footwear is important for bone and joint health. It’s a good idea to vary the heel height of the shoes we wear. For those who like high heels, heels lower than three inches seem to be best for bone and joint health. It’s also important that all shoes, including tennis and athletic shoes, fit properly. Toes need room and there should be good arch support. Some sort of cushion, especially under the ball and heel areas of our feet, is recommended.

Did you know?

Those women who wear high heeled shoes have seven to 10 times’ greater chance of developing joint pain and problems.

Poor eating habits are a major source of heart and other lifestyle diseases now days. So a balanced diet is of utmost importance in heart disease prevention and control. Since some symptoms of heart diseases are similar to gastroenteritis and arm pain, some people tend to ignore it. And think that going to a doctor is not required now. They wait till the problem increases drastically or they land up in the emergency. Sometimes it’s too late and the patient can’t be saved.

Did you know?

Emphasising on the importance of to contacting your doctor when the first symptom of heart diseases or anything similar occurs and also on the dangers of self medication and postponement.

Correct posture in everyday life is very important aspect of the body as it helps to avoid various aches and pains including those of the areas like the Neck, Back, Knee ache, etc... Maintaining sleeping, eating postures and pillow positioning are also very essential , there is an exercise for every pain caused by any of the wrong posture for a particular body part and we should not ignore it.

Did you know?

There are some a case in which problem persists for long but the pain is felt at a very later stage. These cases can also be treated and should not be ignored. If there is a lot of pain, then exercises should be avoided at that time, as it can aggravate the problem further.

There are types of organ donation, which includes live and cadaver organ donation. If the patient is brain dead, then with the consent of the relatives the organs can be donated. There are some wrong Myths like a live donor donating a kidney is associated with health risks thereafter. Cadaver organ donation (donation done after the patient expires) donating the kidneys helps the millions of renal disease sufferers live a better life.

Did you know?

Consent of the family members of the expired patient for organ donation is very essential.

Anyone and everyone can donate eyes and that the eyes can be donated to anyone with no hassles of cross matching and so on. There is minimum risk in this as there is no blood supply in the cornea and the chances of rejection are also very low.

Did you know?

There are only few cases in which eyes can’t be donated - when the patient passed away due to illnesses such as HIV, Septicaemia etc . Also, Eye donation can be done at any age.

Smoking is the number one cause of preventable deaths in the world. Cigarette smokers have lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. Consult your doctor for using antismoking therapies.

Did you know?

Replacing smoking with leisure activities not only prevents you from the harmful effects of tobacco but also keeps you active and healthy.

Although Graves' disease can be diagnosed from the results of one or two tests, your doctor may use several methods to double-check the findings and rule out other disorders. An analysis of your blood will show if the levels of two hormones (free T-4) and (free T-3), which are produced or regulated by the thyroid -- are higher than normal.

Did you know?

If they are, and if levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood are abnormally low, you are hyperthyroid, and Graves' disease is the likely culprit.

Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland control metabolism, or the speed at which the body converts food into energy. Metabolism is directly linked to the amount of hormones that circulate in the bloodstream. If, for some reason, the thyroid gland secretes an overabundance of these hormones, the body's metabolism goes into high gear, producing the pounding heart, sweating, trembling, and weight loss typically experienced by hyperthyroid people.

Did you know?

In Graves' disease, a malfunction in the body's immune system releases abnormal antibodies that mimic TSH. Spurred by these false signals to produce, the thyroid's hormone factories work overtime and exceed their normal quota.

Also called underactive thyroid, is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones. Hypothyroidism can be caused by the autoimmune disorder Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, irradiation or surgical removal of the thyroid gland, and medications that reduce thyroid hormone levels. Anyone can develop hypothyroidism, but people who are most at risk include those who are over age 50 and female.

Did you know?

However, only a small percentage of people have full-blown (overt) hypothyroidism. Many more have mildly underactive thyroid glands (subclinical hypothyroidism).

Symptoms of hypothyroidism include Fatigue, Difficulty concentrating, Feeling cold, Headache, Muscle and joint aches, Weight gain, despite diminished appetite, Constipation, Dry skin, Coarse hair, hair loss, Hoarse voice, Depression, Menstrual irregularities (either heavier-than-normal or lighter-than-normal bleeding)

Did you know?

Hypothyroidism can cause serious complications if left untreated.

Nephrotic syndrome is one of the commonest kidney disorders in children. It can be the first sign of a disease that damages the kidney's tiny blood-filtering units, called glomeruli, where urine is made. A child with nephrotic syndrome has these signs high levels of protein in the urine, a condition called proteinuria.

Did you know?

Nephrotic syndrome causes proteinuria, low levels of protein in the blood, less frequent urination, and swelling and weight gain from the buildup of fluid.

Other meningiomas grow more rapidly, or have sudden growth spurts. There is no way to predict the rate of growth for a meningioma, or to know for certain how long a specific tumor was growing before diagnosis. Meningiomas vary in their symptoms and appropriate treatment options depending on where they are located. Age at the time of diagnosis is also indicates an increased chance of survival. The younger patients have better survival rates.

Did you know?

A primary brain tumor originates in the central nervous system, while metastatic brain tumors spread to the brain from other parts of the body.

It is a type of tumor that develops from the meninges, the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. There are three layers of meninges, called the Dura mater, arachnoids and pia mater. Most meningiomas (90%) are categorized as benign tumors, with the remaining 10% being a typical or malignant. However, the word "benign" can be misleading in this case, as when benign tumors grow and constrict and affect the brain, they can cause disability and even be life threatening.

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In many cases, benign meningiomas grow slowly. This means that depending upon where it is located, a meningioma may reach a relatively large size before it causes symptoms.

People with MS often say they feel a "pins and needles" sensation. They may also have numbness, itching, burning, stabbing, or tearing pains. About half of people with MS have these uncomfortable symptoms. Fortunately, they can be managed or treated.

Did you know?

MS affects about 2.5 million people worldwide and affects women twice as often as men .Family history is also a major risk factor.

Blurred or double vision ,Thinking problems ,Clumsiness or a lack of coordination, Loss of balance, Numbness, Tingling, Weakness in an arm or leg. No two people have exactly the same symptoms of MS. You may have a single symptom, and then go months or years without any others. A problem can also happen just one time, go away, and never return.

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For some people, the symptoms become worse within weeks or months.

The exact cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not known. But inherited genetic factors are likely responsible. Ongoing research is focused on identifying genes that cause a person to be susceptible to ADHD.Using various imaging tests; researchers have been able to observe the brain at work. They have found a possible link between ADHD and Brain structure.

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The functions of chemicals in the brain that help regulate attention and activity .Differences in function of some of the areas of the brain that affect attention and impulse control.

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is an ongoing behavior disorder typically diagnosed at age five or six, although the symptoms have usually been observed much earlier than this age. The three key symptoms are Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity.

Did you know?

These symptoms typically interfere with the child's functioning in social and academic settings.

These can cause choking or damage to the person's jaw, tongue, or teeth. Contrary to widespread belief, people cannot swallow their tongues during a seizure or any other time. Remove any sharp or solid objects that the person might hit during the seizure. Note how long the seizure lasts and what symptoms occurred so you can tell a doctor or emergency personnel if necessary. Stay with the person until the seizure ends.

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Most seizures are self-limiting and are followed by a so-called postictal period, in which the brain can be considered to "reboot and restart" all its programs, similar to a computer when it is rebooted.

If you see someone having a seizure with convulsions and/or loss of consciousness, here's how you can help. Roll the person on his or her side to prevent choking on any fluids or vomit. Cushion the person's head. Loosen any tight clothing around the neck. Keep the person's airway open. If necessary, grip the person's jaw gently and tilt his or her head back. Do NOT restrict the person from moving unless he or she is in danger.

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We shouldn’t put anything into the person's mouth, not even medicine or liquid.

The foremost way by which they contribute towards promoting health is by PREVENTING DISEASE TO OCCUR at the first place. Another means to achieve good health is early detection of diseases. Diseases like diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia often do not have symptoms in the initial stages. It is often only their complications that cause symptoms.

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Timely clinical examination and investigation are the ways by which these can be detected before they have caused any symptoms, damage or complications.

Proactively teach children important skills that will prevent problems and increase their success. Use clear specific teaching techniques and effective consequences to increase acceptable behavior and decrease problem behavior. Remain calm in intense situations and teach your children to calm themselves when they are upset. Help your children express feelings in appropriate ways.

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Develop routines and traditions that create cherished family memories and a healthy home environment.

Success is not based on academic prowess alone but requires consistent efforts to build on one's social and emotional capabilities as well. These abilities in fact form the core of any child or adolescent's ability to succeed in their future lives.

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Some of the things which you as parents can do to enable the development and enhancement of the same are setting consistent, reasonable expectations based on your child's age, developmental and skill level.

Maintain open channels of communication. Share aspects of your life with the people who are important to you. The biggest mistake we make is that we forget to listen to the other person in our life and that only serves to distance them from you. Give each other space. Do not keep intruding and suffocate the other person. Be able to trust your partner.

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Be empathic and don't look at things from your perspective alone. Learn to take the perspective of the other which would make you truly understanding.

Smoking is harmful for the person who smokes (active smoking) and also for the people around (passive smoking). Exercise – everyone needs to indulge in some form of exercise or the other. A minimum of 30 mins walk in a day needs to be a part of everyone’s routine if they are not into any active sport. Stress management- People are under lot of stress these days. Work pressures and family pressure are at difficult to manage at the same time.

Did you know?

The age old practices of yoga and meditation which are more relevant than ever in today’s fast paced life for stress management.

Many of today’s diseases are directly related to an unhealthy lifestyle and thus can be prevented by bringing about an improvement in the same. This is one of the main pillars of any good preventive health program. Whether it is encouraging people to quit smoking or to follow a more active lifestyle, gentle encouragement by a health care professional can go a long way in bringing about these behavioural changes in people.

Did you know?

Adult immunization (vaccination) is another upcoming means of protection against some preventable diseases, like the well established vaccination program for children.

The following are the most common symptoms of heart disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease may include chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, and swollen ankles.

Did you know?

Other vascular problems due to diabetes include poor circulation to the legs and feet.

Risk factors include poorly controlled blood sugars, too high or out of the normal range, high blood pressure, obesity, abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides, lack of physical activity and smoking. By controlling these risk factors, diabetic patients may be able to avoid or delay the development of cardiovascular disease.

Did you know?

People with insulin resistance or diabetes in combination with one or more risk factors are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease often go hand-in-hand. Persons with diabetes are at a much greater risk for cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and high blood pressure. Persons with diabetes often experience changes in the blood vessels that can lead to cardiovascular disease. In persons with diabetes, the linings of the blood vessels may become thicker, making it more difficult for blood to flow through the vessels.

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Blood vessels can also suffer damage elsewhere in the body due to diabetes, leading to eye problems, kidney problems, and poor circulation to the legs and feet.

Symptoms of RSV infection are similar to other respiratory infections like coughing, sneezing, stuffy or runny nose, mild sore throat, fever, loss of appetite, possible wheezing and trouble sleeping. In very young infants, the only symptoms may be irritability, decreased activity, and breathing difficulties. RSV can be prevented by covering your coughs and sneezes with a tissue or your elbow, washing your hands frequently and correctly (with soap and water for 15–20 seconds), avoid sharing cups and eating utensils with others, use a disinfectant to clean hard surfaces that many people touch and where germs can live (such as doorknobs, counters, telephones, remote controls, keyboards, etc.).

Did you know?

Young children, especially those born prematurely, are most at risk for RSV.

RSV is a very contagious virus and the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children younger than age one. RSV passes from person to person like a cold virus—when someone with RSV coughs or sneezes, droplets travel through the air to others nearby or land on surfaces that others will touch.

Did you know?

It can enter your body when you touch your eyes or nose after touching RSV germs.

Wash your feet every day in warm, not hot, water. Be sure to dry between your toes. Use talcum powder to keep the skin dry between the toes. Keep the skin soft and smooth and wear shoes and socks at all times. Do not walk barefoot, not even indoors. Keep the blood flowing to your feet by putting your feet up when you are sitting. Wiggle your toes for 5 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day.

Did you know?

Moving your ankles up and down and in and out is a good way to improve blood flow in your feet and legs.

According to the National Institute of Health, some simple everyday steps will help prevent serious complications from diabetes. Make healthy lifestyle choices to keep your blood sugar close to normal. Check your feet regularly for cuts, sores, red spots, swelling, or infected toenails.

Did you know?

You should be sure to call your doctor immediately if a cut, sore, blister, or bruise on your foot does not heal after one day.

Pneumothorax can be caused by physical trauma to the chest (including blast injury), or as a complication of medical or surgical intervention. Symptoms typically include chest pain and shortness of breath. Diagnosis of a Pneumothorax by physical examination alone can be difficult or inconclusive (particularly in smaller pneumothoraces), so a chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan is usually used to confirm its presence.

Did you know?

The treatment of Pneumothorax depends on a number of factors. Treatment is determined by the severity of symptoms and indicators of acute illness.

Seizures occur because the brain becomes irritated and an "electrical storm" occurs. This "electrical storm" occurs because the normal connections between the cells in the brain do not function properly. This causes the brain to try to shut down because of the electrical surge. The muscle shaking occurs because the brain is ending out signals to every muscle group, asking them to contract. Seizures are a common event, and 4% of people will experience one in their lifetime. The potential to have a seizure depends upon the threshold of the brain to withstand excess electrical activity.

Did you know?

A blow to the head can cause an electrical spike causing a seizure, and sometimes seizures just happen.

The earlier cervical cancer is diagnosed, the more successfully it can be treated. Regular cervical screening can save thousands of live every year. Cervical cancer screening should occur no more than once every three to five years. They added that the PAP test should be carried out at the same time as the HPV test - testing for both is better than just the PAP test alone.

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The test looks for abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. If left untreated, some abnormal cells can eventually develop into cancer. Cervical screening does not detect cancer.

The risk factors include HPV (human papilloma virus) - Human papilloma virus infection is a sexually transmitted virus. Many sexual partners, becoming sexually active early, smoking, weakened immune system, certain genetic factors, long-term mental stress, giving birth at a very young age, several pregnancies, contraceptive pill, sexually transmitted diseases (STD).

Did you know?

Even the Socio-economic status can be one of the causes for cervical cancer.

Often during the early stages people may experience no symptoms at all. That is why women should have regular cervical smear tests. Common symptoms are bleeding between periods, bleeding after sexual intercourse, bleeding in post-menopausal, discomfort during sexual intercourse, smelly vaginal discharge, vaginal discharge tinged with blood, Pelvic pain.

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Cancer is the result of the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. Abnormal cells can have two problems, firstly they don't die. Secondly they continue dividing. This results in an excessive accumulation of cells which eventually form a lump - a tumor.

Bring a list of all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you take. For example, Aspirin can interfere with blood clotting and may need to be discontinued before surgery. Be sure to mention any supplements or herbal products you take. Several herbs — such as St. John’s wort, feverfew, valerian, ginkgo, and ginseng — can cause problems with bleeding or blood pressure during surgery or interact with anesthesia medications. Make note of any allergies.

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It is important to tell about any loose teeth, dentures, or crowns; as they could be damaged if a tube is placed into your throat to help you breathe.

One of the most important things you can do to keep yourself safe is to have a thorough preoperative discussion with a member of the anesthesia team. This is an opportunity to provide the anesthesiologist with information vital to your care and for you to express your wishes about anesthesia and postoperative pain control. Your medical history is important. Mention any adverse reactions to anesthesia in yourself or your parents, siblings, or children.

Did you know?

Anesthesia reactions can run in families, and some hereditary disorders need special attention.

General anesthesia is the one in which you are unconscious and have no awareness or other sensations. There are a number of general anesthetic drugs. Some are gases or vapors inhaled through a breathing mask or tube and others are medications introduced through a vein. During anesthesia, you are carefully monitored, controlled and treated by your anesthesiologist. A breathing tube may be inserted through your mouth and frequently into the windpipe to maintain proper breathing during this period.

Did you know?

The length and level of anesthesia is calculated and constantly adjusted with great precision. At the conclusion of surgery, your anesthesiologist will reverse the process and you will regain awareness in the recovery room.

A Pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall and which may interfere with normal breathing. A Primary Pneumothorax is one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease. A Secondary Pneumothorax occurs in the presence of existing lung pathology. In a minority of cases, the amount of air in the chest increases markedly gradually, when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a Tension Pneumothorax.

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This condition is a medical emergency that can cause steadily worsening oxygen shortage and low blood pressure. Unless reversed by effective treatment, these sequelae can progress and cause death.

Rheumatic heart disease is permanent damage to the heart valves caused in around 60% of patients, by the inflammation of rheumatic fever, which can eventually lead to heart failure. The Rheumatic fever, and as a consequence Rheumatic heart disease, can be prevented by improving sanitary conditions, preventing overcrowding, early and adequate institution of antibiotics for strep throat.

Did you know?

In India, more than 70% cases of Valvular heart disease continue to be caused by Rheumatic heart disease. Though uniformly common across the world till 100 years back, now the disease has practically been wiped out from the developed world.

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease, which affects the connective tissues in the heart, joints, skin, and brain. A throat infection (strep throat) caused by a type of bacteria called group A Streptococcus, when left untreated can progress to rheumatic fever.

Did you know?

It can occur at any age, commonly affecting children around 5-15 years of age.

The branch of medicine specializing in the use of drugs or other agents that cause insensibility to pain. Anesthesiology is also continuity of patient care involving preoperative evaluation, intra operative and postoperative care and the management of systems and personnel that support these activities. The sub specialties within Anesthesiology include Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Critical Care, Neuro Anesthesia, Obstetrical Anesthesiology, Pain Management, Pediatric Anesthesiology, and ambulatory Anesthesia.

Did you know?

Anesthesiology has emerged as one of the important medical specialties from providing anesthesia services for surgical procedures of greater and greater complexity to providing specialized care in the fields of pain, intensive care & ambulatory surgery.

Atherosclerosis is a disease of blood vessels, as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol and triglyceride. Atherosclerosis affects the entire artery tree, but mostly larger, high-pressure vessels such as the coronary, renal, femoral, cerebral, and carotid arteries.

Did you know?

Amongst general apparently healthy (clinically silent) people over 40 years, more than 50% have detectable atherosclerosis.

Cervical cancer, or cancer of the cervix, is cancer of the entrance to the uterus (womb). The cervix is the narrow part of the lower uterus, often referred to as the neck of the womb. Cervical cancer occurs most commonly in women over the age of 30.

One of the most common symptoms of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, but in some cases there may be no obvious symptoms until the cancer has progressed to an advanced stage.

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Treatment usually consists of surgery (including local excision) in early stages, and chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in more advanced stages of the disease.

Urinary incontinence is the accidental release of urine. Incontinence can be a short-term problem caused by a urinary tract infection, a medicine, or constipation. It gets better when you treat the problem that is causing it. There are two main kinds of urinary incontinence.

Did you know?

Stress incontinence occurs when you sneeze, cough, laugh, jog, or do other things that put pressure on your bladder.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and causes cardiovascular disease. Patients with FH are known to develop premature cardiovascular disease, despite normal dietary habits and exercise pattern at the age of 30 to 40 years and in very rare cases (being homozygous) may cause severe cardiovascular disease in childhood. People who carry FH gene mandatorily require drugs to control cholesterol, and homozygous individuals require repeated plasmapheresis (like dialysis) to remove cholesterol from body.

Did you know?

Heterozygous FH is a common genetic disorder, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, occurring in 1:500 people in most countries; homozygous FH is much rarer, occurring in 1 in a million births.

Tofu also called as “Cheese of Asia” is a very good source of protein. Soy protein has numerous other nutrients necessary for good health. When women’s production of natural estrogen drops at menopause, soy’s isoflavones may provide just enough estrogenic activity to prevent /reduce uncomfortable symptoms like hot flashes etc. Tofu is also a good source of calcium. 4 ounces of Tofu supply about 40 % of the daily value for calcium & contain approx. 90 calories.

Did you know?

Researches have shown that regular intake of soy protein can lower total cholesterol level by as much as 30 % & lower LDL by 35 % to 40 %, lower triglyceride level & reduce the tendency to form blood clots & possibly even raise levels of HDL.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) represents several diseases in which high blood glucose levels over time can damage the nerves, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels. Foot problems commonly develop in people with diabetes and can quickly become serious. With damage to the nervous system, there is a loss of ability to feel pain, heat, and cold. Diabetics can develop minor cuts, scrapes or pressure sores that they may not be aware of due to the insensitivity.

Did you know?

If these injuries are left untreated, complications may result and lead to ulceration and possibly even amputation.

Kawasaki's disease is an autoimmune disease affecting medium sized blood vessels in the body, usually occurring in children below five years, and is found in all countries throughout the world. It primarily affects the skin, blood vessels and lymph nodes, thus is also called "Muco-cutaneous lymph node syndrome". If detected on time, the treatment is primarily through injectable medicines. Most serious and very rare (in less than 0.01% of patients affected by it) complication is development of coronary artery aneurysms.

Did you know?

Though very rare, it's still the most common cause of bypass surgery and coronary artery stenting in children.

Although Goodpasture syndrome may cause life-threatening bleeding in the lungs, it usually does not result in long-term lung damage. The most serious consequence of Goodpasture syndrome is kidney failure. If diagnosed in early stage it can be treated very effectively. If diagnosis is delayed, it can cause irreversible renal failure which requires either dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Did you know?

Goodpasture syndrome can run in families. So some researchers believe it may have a genetic component.

Goodpasture syndrome is a rare but serious autoimmune disease that attacks the lungs and kidneys. The disease occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against collagen in the lungs and kidneys. Collagen is a protein that helps form connective tissue. The signs may include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, difficulty breathing and pale skin.

Did you know?

When Goodpasture syndrome affects the kidneys, symptoms may include blood in the urine, foamy urine, swelling in the legs, high blood pressure, burning or difficulty when urinating, back pain below the ribs and swelling of the hands and feet.

The patient swallows a capsule which wirelessly sends images of the inside of his/her stomach and digestive tract. Eventually the capsule will exit the patient when he/she has a bowel motion. Currently, capsule endoscopy is used to find out why a patient is bleeding in their digestive system, with no clear cause. It can also be used to diagnose GERD (Gastro esophageal reflux disease). A study indicated that capsule endoscopy is effective in diagnosing gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel Crohn's disease in children.

Did you know?

The capsule is about the size of a multi-vitamin and has a camera attached to it. As it moves through the digestive tract it takes pictures.

Causes of gallbladder inflammation leading to rupture include gall stones (most common cause for inflammation), diabetes or immune compromised patients, ascariasis (parasitic worms), bacterial infection (biliary sludge-mixture of bile and particle matter, which clogs the gall bladder lumen), causes of blunt injury to the gall bladder, motor vehicle accidents, falls in sports, direct blows in sports (soccer, wrestling, rugby, etc.). Symptoms of gallbladder rupture may include, nausea, pain in upper right quadrant of body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin caused by pressure and swelling around the gall bladder) fever.

Outlook is best when the gallbladder is removed before it can rupture. After the rupture the best option is a life saving surgery which involves removing the gall bladder and performing a thorough abdominal lavoge.

Did you know?

Not all ruptures occur in the same position within the gallbladder.

Rupture of the gallbladder is a medical condition in which the gallbladder bursts and leads to leakage of bile. The liver makes the body’s supply of bile. Bile helps break down fats during food digestion. Not all bile is needed at one time so excess is stored within the gallbladder. Gallbladder rupture is associated with bile leak in to the abdominal cavity leading to peritonitis and subsequently septicemia. Such an infection can be fatal.

Did you know?

Ruptures are generally caused by serious inflammation to the gall bladder. Rare cases may be caused by a blunt injury.

Nasal congestion can interfere with hearing and speech development. Significant congestion may interfere with sleep. A stuffy nose is usually caused by a virus or bacteria. Causes include common cold, flu and sinus infection. The congestion typically goes away by itself within a week. Congestion can also be caused by hay fever or other allergies and nasal polyps. The congestion typically goes away by itself within a week. Please get in touch with your doctor in case of increased throat pain, or white or yellow spots on the tonsils or other parts of the throat or coughing episodes that last longer than a week.

Did you know?

Congestion is often worse when you are lying down. Keep upright, or at least keep the head elevated.

Many people think that a nose gets congested (stuffy) from too much thick mucus. However, in most cases, the nose becomes congested when the tissues lining it become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. Newborn infants must breathe through the nose. Nasal congestion in an infant's first few months of life can interfere with nursing, and in rare cases can cause serious breathing problems.

Did you know?

Nasal congestion in older children and adolescents is usually just an annoyance, but it can cause other difficulties.

These symptoms range from infrequent and mild to persistent and severe. Ulcerative colitis can happen at any age, but it usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30. It tends to run in families. Other symptoms may include anemia, severe tiredness, weight loss, loss of appetite, bleeding from the rectum, sores on the skin and joint pain. Children with the disease may have growth problems.

Did you know?

About half of people with ulcerative colitis have mild symptoms. Several types of drugs can help control ulcerative colitis. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. In severe cases, doctors must remove the colon.

Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease. It causes chronic inflammation of the cells that line the rectum and colon (large intestine). This inflammation can lead to sores called ulcers, which may bleed and interfere with digestion. There are medications to calm the inflammation.

Did you know?

Abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea are the most common warning signs of ulcerative colitis.

Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimeter or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not.

Did you know?

It takes 15 years or fewer for a polyp to turn cancerous.

Symptoms may be seasonal and can include: Intense itching or burning eyes,Puffy eyelids, especially in the morning,Red eyes,Stringy eye discharge and widened (dilated) vessels in the clear tissue covering the white of the eye. The best treatment is to avoid what causes your allergy symptoms. It may be impossible to avoid all of your triggers. You may also use eye drops prescribed by the doctor that prevent certain white blood cells, called mast cells, from releasing histamine. These drops are given along with antihistamines for more severe symptoms.

Did you know?

Lubricating eye drops can help decrease symptoms. You can relieve discomfort by applying cool compresses to the eyes.

Allergic conjunctivitis occurs when the clear layer of tissue lining the eyelids and covering the white of the eye (conjunctiva) becomes swollen or inflamed due to a reaction to pollen, dander, mold, or other allergy-causing substances. Reddening of the eyes develops quickly, along with itching and tearing.

Did you know?

Allergies tend to run in families, although they are not inherited in any obvious way. It is hard to know exactly how many people have allergies, because many different conditions are often lumped under the term allergy.

The most common problem with gastroenteritis is dehydration. This happens if you do not drink enough fluids to replace what you lose through vomiting and diarrhea. Dehydration is most common in babies, young children, the elderly and people with weak immune systems.The most important aspect of treating viral gastroenteritis in children and adults is to prevent severe loss of fluids (dehydration). This treatment should begin at home. Your physician may give you specific instructions about what kinds of fluid to give.

Did you know?

We can reduce our chances of getting infected by frequent handwashing, prompt disinfection of contaminated surfaces with household chlorine bleach-based cleaners, and prompt washing of soiled articles of clothing.

Lower risk of heart disease blood donation removes some of the excess iron which can cause free radical formation in the body in fact; studies have shown that men who donate blood on regular basis have lower risk of heart disease. With heart disease. Being number one cause of death in males, this is, indeed, an important health benefit of donating blood.

Did you know?

When you donate blood, you will get a medical examination including medical history, heamoglobin estimation and blood group determination .The donated blood tested for hepatitis B, C, HIV viruses, syphilis and malaria.

Pain management is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with pain. The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurse practitioners, and clinical nurse specialists. The team may also include other mental health specialists and massage therapists. Pain sometimes resolves promptly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, and is treated by one practitioner, with drugs such as analgesics and (occasionally) anxiolytics.

Did you know?

Effective management of chronic (long-term) pain, however, frequently requires the coordinated efforts of the management team.

An endoscopy is often used to confirm a diagnosis when other devices, such as an MRI, X-ray, or CT scan are considered inappropriate. The conditions and illnesses are most commonly investigated or diagnosed with an endoscopy include breathing disorders Chronic diarrhea ,Incontinence ,Internal bleeding ,Irritable bowel syndrome ,Stomach ulcers ,Urinary tract infections .

Did you know?

An endoscopy is often carried out to find out the degree of problems, in these cases, it may significantly contribute towards the doctor's decision on the best treatment for the patient.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby. A combination of physical and sleep environmental factors can make an infant more vulnerable to SIDS. These factors may vary from child to child including brain abnormalities, low birth weight, respiratory infection. Sleeping on the stomach or side, sleeping on a soft surface. Sleeping with parents.

Did you know?

Mother under the age of 20, Smoking cigarettes, Drug or alcohol use, inadequate prenatal are also the causes for SIDS.

Acute blockage of coronary arteries is the most common emergency and can lead to hemodynamic collapse and Cardiogenic shock (CS) which is a leading cause of Death with 70 to 90% mortality without timely intervention. Immediate transportation to a tertiary care hospital with cardiac facilities and prompt angiography with suitable revascularization procedure to open the blocked arteries can save many lives and prevent irreversible damage to heart muscle.

Did you know?

Some patients with blockage not suitable for percutaneous interventions (stenting) need prompt bypass surgery which usually carries higher risk if performed ON Pump after stopping the heart. Off pump surgery is done on a beating heart without putting the patient on artificial cardiopulmonary Bypass machine and can decrease the risk of complications and death in such patients.

Fortunately, there are many ways to treat pain. Treatment varies depending on the cause of pain. Pain relievers, acupuncture and sometimes surgery are helpful. Pain management is important for ongoing pain control, especially if you suffer with long-term or chronic pain. After getting a pain assessment, your doctor can prescribe pain medicine or other pain treatments to help you get pain relief. Sometimes psychotherapy is also useful in learning new coping skills to help with chronic pain.

Did you know?

Treatment approaches to chronic pain include pharmacologic measures, interventional procedures, physical therapy, physical exercise, application of ice and/or heat, and psychological measures, such as biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Pain is a feeling triggered in the nervous system. Pain may be sharp or dull. It may come and go, or it may be constant. You may feel pain in one area of your body, such as your back, abdomen or chest or you may feel pain all over, such as when your muscles ache from the flu.”Pain can be helpful in diagnosing a problem. Without pain, you might seriously hurt yourself without knowing it, or you might not realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. Once you take care of the problem, pain usually goes away.

Did you know?

Sometimes pain goes on for weeks, months or even years. This is called chronic pain. Sometimes chronic pain is due to an ongoing cause, such as cancer or arthritis. Sometimes the cause is unknown.

Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers, in the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Pleural effusion is usually diagnosed on the basis of medical history and physical exam, and confirmed by Chest X-Ray and clinical signs in the patient, such as decreased movement of the chest on the affected side, stony dullness to percussion over the fluid, diminished breath sounds on the affected side.

Did you know?

Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during ventilation.

The present status and future of hepatitis B and C are somewhat different.Hepatitis B has an effective vaccine for prevention and 6 medicines for treatment, 5 of which are oral medicines. Treatment for both is long, ranging from several months to years. Control of Hepatitis B is now centeredon applying science into effective policy and practice. For Hepatitis C, the challenge is to discover new effective oral drugs.

Did you know?

At least 4 new drugs for Hepatitis C are in advanced stages of trial and expecting market launch in 2015. In a decade, the story of Hepatitis B may have to be told differently.

Hepatitis C is emerging as the most common cause of chronic viral liver disease in many countries. Hepatitis C is spread by similar ways as hepatitis B, but re-used injections and poorly screened blood/blood products are the primary source. The screening test for detecting Hepatitis C is the Anti-HCV test (antibody test). If positive, it needs to be backed up by HCV-RNA test to know if the virus is alive and multiplying, before deciding to offer treatment.

Did you know?

The treatment is cumbersome, but if done well before much liver damage has occurred, can lead to cure in most cases.

One might wonder why Hepatitis B continues to prevail in the community despite effective screening of blood before transfusion and the widespread use of disposable needles. The most common mode of transfusion is from a “carrier” mother inadvertently to her new-born. Screening for Hepatitis B infection in the ante-natal period is recommended. ”Positive” mothers are advised to get their new-born infants vaccinated within 12 hours of birth.

Did you know?

Vaccination of such new-borns is best done with simultaneous passive vaccination with HBIG (Hepatitis B immune globulin) and active vaccination with Hepatitis B vaccine, followed by subsequent shots of the Hepatitis B vaccine. Interrupting the mother-to-infant cycle therefore holds the key to eradication of Hepatitis B in the community.

Of the 4 common Hepatitis viruses - A, B, C and E, two (i.e. B and C) can lodge in the liver for long periods as chronic infections.Around 5% of the apparently healthy population of India have either of these 2 infections (Hepatitis B: 4%, Hepatitis C: 1%).There are around 50 million people infected with these viruses in India, much more than HIV (3 million).Chronic Infection with Hepatitis B and C viruses is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer in India.

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The huge magnitude of the problem is not recognized as most patients do not have symptoms before significant liver damage has occurred.

Kidney diseases are silent killers and the steps to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease include keeping fit and active, keeping regular control of your blood sugar level, and monitoring your blood pressure. It is important to eat healthy and keep your weight in check, maintain a healthy fluid intake, avoid smoking and get your kidney function checked if you have one or more of the 'high risk' factors.

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Avoid medications injurious to kidneys like pain killers {NSAIDS} routinely or for prolonged duration.

Kidney disease can be detected early with simple laboratory tests of blood (to measure creatinine content and estimate GFR) and urine (to measure albumin excretion and microscopic sediments). Screening is critical for those people considered to be at high risk of kidney disease, namely patients with diabetes and hypertension, individuals who are obese or smoke, individuals over 50 years of age, and individuals with a family history of kidney disease, diabetes mellitus or hypertension.

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Further steps can be under taken for the prevention or slowing down of the disease progression at the secondary level after the disease has been detected.

The prevalence of kidney disease is increasing dramatically and the cost of treating this growing epidemic represents an enormous burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Between 8 and 10% of the adult population have some form of kidney damage, and every year millions die prematurely of complications related to Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD).

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In both developed and developing countries diabetes, hypertension and heart disease are the most common causes of CKD, especially in the aging populations.

The main reasons for low levels of vitamin D are lack of vitamin D in the diet, often in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure, inability to absorb vitamin D from the intestines and inability to process vitamin D due to kidney or liver disease. Children with nutritional vitamin D deficiency should receive vitamin D and adequate nutritional intake of calcium and phosphorus.

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It is important to ensure that children receive adequate dietary calcium and phosphorus; this is usually provided by milk, formula, and other dairy products. Ensure sun exposure daily for at least 30 minutes.

While there is no known cure for asbestosis, supportive treatment of symptoms includes oxygen therapy to relieve shortness of breath, respiratory physiotherapy to remove secretions from the lungs, and medications to thin secretions and relieve pain.

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The greatest risk for contracting asbestosis has fallen upon those in the asbestos mining and milling trades, those manufacturing asbestos textiles and other products, shipbuilders, and insulation workers in the construction and building trades.

Asbestosis is a chronic pneumoconiosis disease in which the parenchymal tissue of the lungs undergoes slow and repetitive fibrosis, or scarring. Pneumoconiosis is a general term used to describe a lung disease associated with inhalation of large amounts of a specific type of dust. Although the symptoms of asbestosis may not be noticed for decades after a person has been exposed to asbestos, the primary symptoms of the disease are decreased tolerance for physical exertion and shortness of breath.

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The severities of the symptoms are often related to the amount and length of asbestos exposure.

Varying degrees of irritability, delay in gross motor development and bone pain. Signs include widening of the wrists and ankles, prominence of the costochondral junctions, delayed closure of fontanelles and frontal bossing. Tooth eruption may be delayed and tooth enamel may be of poor quality if vitamin D deficiency occurs in utero or in early infancy, increasing the risk for caries.

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Rickets also may be associated with poor growth (a manifestation of associated bone disease) and an increased susceptibility to infections.

The grim reality is that smoking exerts an enormous toll on the health of individuals and several studies confirm that smoking remains a huge threat to the public's health. When the rates and causes of death are observed within the age group 25 to 79 years, the mortality of current smokers of both sexes was three times that of participants who had never smoked. The benefits of quitting smoking are dramatic for all age groups, with substantial gains in life expectancy, as compared with participants who had continued to smoke.

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Those who quit between the ages of 25 and 34 years lived 10 years longer; those who quit between ages 35- 44 gained 9 years, those who quit between ages 45 and 54 gained 6 years, and those who quit between ages 55-64 gained 4 years.

Vitamin D is a prohormone that is essential for normal absorption of calcium from the gut, and deficiency of vitamin D is associated with rickets in growing children and osteomalacia in adults. Rickets is the failure of mineralization of growing bone and cartilage.

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Vitamin D–deficiency rickets includes symptoms and signs of bone deformity and/or pain and may be associated with hypocalcemia and associated clinical features.

Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended 'active' smoker. It occurs when tobacco smoke permeates any environment, causing its inhalation by people within that environment. Second-hand smoke causes many of the same diseases as direct smoking, including cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, and also risk of ear infections, cognitive impairment & dementia and skin disorders. During pregnancy it causes Low Birth Weight and Premature Birth. It can cause damage to children's carotid arteries at birth and at subsequent age.

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Recent studies comparing women exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and non-exposed women, demonstrate that women exposed while pregnant have higher risks of delivering a child with congenital abnormalities, longer lengths, smaller head circumferences, and low birth weight.

Immunity is a biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. In other words, it is the capability of the body to resist harmful microbes. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity.

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Garlic is a powerful immune booster that stimulates the multiplication of infection-fighting white cells, boosts natural killer cell activity and increases the efficiency of antibody production. The immune-boosting properties of garlic seem to be due to its sulfur-containing compound. Garlic can also act as an antioxidant that reduces the build-up of free radicals in the bloodstream.

The symptoms for mediastinal lymphadenopathy include cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, chills, night sweats, coughing up blood, hoarseness, unexplained weight loss, wheezing, and stridor.

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Diagnosis for mediastinal lymphadenopathy is done with the help of Chest X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the chest with or without CT-guided needle FNAC/ biopsy, Bronchoscopic Trans Bronchial Needle Aspiration (TBNA) from the lymph nodes, Mediastinoscopy with biopsy (performed under general anesthesia).

Lifestyle advice, including weight loss, avoidance of dietary items which the patient finds worsen symptoms, elevation of the bed head in those who experience nocturnal symptoms, avoidance of late meals and giving up smoking. Recurrence may occur when therapy is stopped and some patients require life-long treatment. In case of failure of therapy or those who are unwilling to take long-term medications may be considered for anti-reflux surgery.

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Recently novel endoscopic methods of performing fundoplication or augmenting function of the lower esophageal sphincter have been developed.

‘Water brash’, which is salivation due to reflex salivary gland stimulation as acid enters the gullet is often present. A history of weight gain is common. Some patients are woken at night by choking as refluxed fluid irritates the larynx. Some people may develop odynophagia or dysphagia.

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Few presents with atypical chest pain which may be severe, can mimic angina and is due to reflux-induced esophageal spasm. Complications include inflammation of esophagus, anemia, benign esophageal stricture and gastric volvulus.

GERD results in heartburn and affects approximately 30% of the general population, caused by the abnormalities of the lower esophageal sphincter, hiatus hernia, delayed esophageal clearance, gastric contents, defective gastric emptying, increased intra-abdominal pressure, dietary and environmental factors.

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Major symptoms are heartburn and regurgitation, often provoked by bending, straining or lying down.

People with insulin resistance are often overweight and don't exercise very much. But weight loss, eating healthier foods and controlling portion sizes, and getting exercise can actually reverse insulin resistance. For people with type 2 diabetes, doing so makes it easier to reach target blood sugar levels and, in some cases, the body's ability to control blood sugar may even return to normal.

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People who don't have diabetes can have insulin resistance, but they're at a higher risk for developing the disease.

Most people are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, and if someone who already has type 2 diabetes gains weight, it will be even harder to control blood sugar levels. People with type 2 diabetes have a condition called insulin resistance. They're able to make insulin but their bodies can't use it properly to move glucose into the cells. So the amount of glucose in the blood rises.

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The pancreas then makes more insulin to try to overcome this problem.

Possible complications of an ectopic kidney arise from obstruction of urine leading to various problems such as infection, stones, kidney damage, and injury from trauma. No treatment for an ectopic kidney is needed if renal function is normal and no blockage of the urinary tract is present. Surgery may be needed if there is an obstruction or reflux.

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Eating, diet, and nutrition have not been shown to play a role in causing or preventing an ectopic kidney.

An ectopic kidney is a condition in which the kidney is not located in the usual position. It can be a birth defect in which a kidney is located below, above, or on the opposite side of its usual position. Factors that may lead to an ectopic kidney include poor development of a kidney bud, a defect in the kidney tissue responsible for prompting the kidney to deviate from its usual position, genetic abnormalities, the mother being sick or being exposed to an agent, such as a drug or chemical that causes birth defects.

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An ectopic kidney may not cause any symptoms and may function normally, even though it is not in its usual position.

Always take bag packs on both shoulders. Always sit with back support. The neck should be in neutral position while working on computers. Micro breaks should be taken to offload continuous stress on neck extensor muscles. Exercise Regimen should include Strengthening: 15-20 repetitions with 10 seconds hold/sets; Flexibility: 3-5 repetitions with 30 seconds hold/sets.

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Maintaining good posture is essential for optimal health. With a little effort and physical therapy, one can prevent problems due to poor posture.

The physiotherapist will point out poor ergonomics and situations that predispose you to FHP and give you practical solutions. Do the head retractions thus stretching the sub occipitalis muscles and upper cervical joints. It can be done while sitting, standing or lying down. Scapular retraction and depression exercises strengthen middle/ lower trapezius and rhomboids muscle.

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This also stretches pectoral muscles thus prevents rounded shoulder. Other exercises are back extension exercises, wall press up exercises, flexibility exercises for upper trapezius, scm, levator scapula, pectorals, and scalene muscles.

One of the most common postural problems is Forward Head Posture (FHP). We live in forward facing world –the repetitive use of computers, television, video games, certain work/leisure, exerciseactivities trauma and even back packs along with the poor posture causes the body to adapt to a ‘forward head posture’. Ideally the head should sit directly on neck shoulders; the weight of the head is more so holding it forward out of alignment, puts strain on your neck and upper back muscles. Because the neck and shoulders have to carry this weight all the day in an isometric contraction this causes neck muscles to get ischemic, damaged, fatigued, strained, causing pain and fibromyalgia.

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In addition, FHP has been shown to flatten neck curve, resulting in disc compression, damage and early arthritis. It is also responsible for tension headaches, often termed as cervicogenic headaches.

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of rare conditions that affect the kidneys. The condition is caused by a defect in the kidney's ability to reabsorb sodium. Bartter syndrome leads to excessive loss of sodium through the urine. This causes a rise in the level of the hormone aldosterone and makes the kidneys remove too much potassium from the body. This is known as potassium wasting. The condition also results in an abnormal acid balance in the blood called hypokalemia alkalosis, which causes too much calcium in the urine. This disease usually occurs in childhood. Symptoms include constipation, growth failure,increased frequency of urination, low blood pressure, kidney stone, muscle cramping and weakness. This is done by following a diet rich in potassium or taking potassium supplements.

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Many patients also need salt and magnesium supplements, as well as medicine that blocks the kidney's ability to get rid of potassium.

Valley fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called coccidioides which lives in the soil of dry areas.Anyone exposed to the fungus can get the infection. The highest risk is for people whose jobs expose them to soil dust. These include construction workers, agricultural workers, and military forces doing field training. The infection cannot spread from person to person. Symptoms of Valley Fever include a flu-like illness, with fever, cough, headache, rash and muscle aches. Most people get better within several weeks or months. A small number of people may develop a chronic lung or widespread infection. Valley Fever is diagnosed by testing your blood, other body fluids, or tissues.

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If Valley Fever spreads, it’s usually to the skin, where it can cause purplish bumps that turn brown.

Calcium is needed for growth and bone development. Calcium prevents osteoporosis (thinning of bones). Osteoporosis is more common in women. Pregnant and lactating women, children and the elderly require more calcium. Milk, curds and nuts are rich sources of bioavailable calcium. Ragi and green leafy vegetables also provide calcium.

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Exercise reduces calcium loss from bones.

A diabetes patient is more likely to develop blindness, kidney problems or heart problems. They are also more likely to develop stroke.It is highly recommended that patients go for regular health checkup to avoid complications.

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The mantra for diabetes is controls your diabetes and do not allow diabetes to control you.

It’s best to avoid the allergens/ triggers that cause your allergic symptoms. While it may be impossible to completely avoid all your triggers, you can certainly take steps to reduce your exposure to them. There are many different medicines available to treat allergic rhinitis. Your doctor will prescribe the one that is right for you depending on the type and severity of your symptoms, your age, and whether you have any other illness. Here are some treatments used to control Allergic Rhinitis.

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It is important that you take your allergic rhinitis seriously because if it is not treated on time the asthma could get worse and cause other complications like ear infections, sinusitis and nasal polyps.

What is Diabetes?

It is an increase in the amount of glucose (sugar) in blood. Type I - This type of diabetes usually appears in younger people under the age of 40 years but may occur at any age. It is treated by insulin injections and diet. Type II - This type of diabetes usually appears in people over the age of 40 years. It usually responds well to diet or tablets but as it is a progressive condition, most people need insulin treatment eventually.

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Symptoms include excessive thirst, tiredness, passing excess urine, losing weight.

Safe and good quality food is essential for maintaining good health. Naturally occurring toxins, environmental contaminants and adulterants in foods constitute a health hazard. Buy food items from reliable sources after careful examination. Wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly before use. Store the raw and cooked food properly and prevent microbial, rodent and insect invasion. Refrigerate perishable food items till consumption. Maintain good personal hygiene and keep the cooking and food storage areas clean and safe.

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Consumption of unsafe foods can lead to food-borne diseases.

Allergic rhinitis is caused by allergens, whereas a cold is caused by germs. Both these problems can make you sneeze, make your nose run and feel blocked and itchy. But there are some signs that can help to tell the difference. It is probably allergic rhinitis if you do not have fever and body ache. The mucus in your nose is clear and runny.You sneeze many times before the sneezing attack stops. Your nose, ear or throat feels itchy. Your eyes water a lot.

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These problems stay longer than a typical cold.

An allergy that affects the nose is called Allergic Rhinitis. It occurs when you breathe in something that you are allergic to, like dust, smoke, dander or pollen. These are called allergens/ triggers.When an allergy affects your nose, you sneeze a lot, there is itching in the nose, eyes or throat, your nose gets runny and blocked and your eyes keep watering. These are the symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis.

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These symptoms can occur during particular seasons of the year. This is called Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis (SAR). If it occurs all year round, it is termed as Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR).

Faulty food beliefs and faddism adversely affect nutrition and health. Faulty cooking habits lead to loss of nutrients. Cooking at high temperatures leads to destruction of nutrients and formation of harmful substances. Avoid food faddism and discard erroneous food beliefs. Do not wash food grains repeatedly before cooking. Do not wash vegetables after cutting. Do not soak the cut vegetables in water for long periods. Do not discard the excess water left over after cooking.

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Cook foods in vessels covered with lids. Prefer pressure/steam cooking to deep frying/roasting. Encourage consumption of sprouted/fermented foods. Avoid use of soda while cooking pulses and vegetables. Do not heat the left over oil repeatedly.

Most of these complications can initially be treated with medicines or dietary changes. Once treatment for these complications becomes ineffective, a liver transplant is considered. Almost all of the complications can be cured by liver transplantation; however, in many circumstances, careful management can reduce the harmful effects of cirrhosis and delay or even prevent the need for a liver transplant.

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Although there is no cure for cirrhosis of the liver, there are treatments available that can stop or delay its progress, minimize the damage to liver cells, and reduce complications.

Normal diet should be wholesome and tasty and should include fresh vegetables and fruits. Vegetables/fruits are rich sources of micronutrients. Fruits and vegetables also provide several non-nutritional factors like fiber and photochemical of vital significance.

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Greens, vegetables (yellow/orange) and fruits help in prevention of micronutrient malnutrition and certain chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension etc.

Hepatitis A is the inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. When symptoms occur, they may include jaundice (condition causing yellow eyes and skin, dark urine), abdominal pain, nausea, fever, diarrhea, fatigue and loss of appetite. Children often have hepatitis A with fewer symptoms. Hepatitis A is most commonly transmitted in drinking water or food contaminated with the stool containing the virus.

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It is spread easily where there is poor sanitation or poor personal hygiene. Blood tests can diagnose hepatitis A.

Chronic bronchitis a type of COPD, is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Chronic bronchitis usually develops due to recurrent injury to the airways caused by inhaled irritants. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause, followed by exposure to air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide, and occupational exposure to respiratory irritants.

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Individuals exposed to cigarette smoke, chemical lung irritants, or who are immune-compromised have an increased risk of developing bronchitis.

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi (the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the more distal parts of the lung parenchyma). Bronchitis can be divided into two categories: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expectorated, or "coughed up", from the respiratory tract).

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Acute bronchitis often occurs during the course of an acute viral illness such as the common cold or influenza. Viruses cause about 90% of acute bronchitis cases, whereas bacteria account for about 10%.

Mediastinal lymphadenopathy or mediastinal adenopathy is an enlargement of the mediastinal nodes. Some common causes include tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis and lymphoma. Almost 40% of people who have mediastinal lymphadenopathy experience no symptoms. Most of them are often discovered on a chest x-ray that is performed for another reason.

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When symptoms are present they are often a result of the compression of surrounding structures, such as the bronchi - cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, chills, night sweats, coughing up blood, hoarseness, unexplained weight loss wheezing and stridor.

Conditions benefited are: Back pain/ sciatica/ lumbar instability, whiplash & other neck pain, sports injuries, tendinopathy, balance/coordination problems, shoulder and arm pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis & fibromyalgia, ankylosing spondylitis, parkinson’s disease & stroke, cerebral palsy, back and pelvic pain during pregnancy, work and accident related injuries, muscular dystrophy, rehabilitation after bone fractures, joint replacement or tendon repair. Contraindications for the therapy include hydrophobia, urinary tract infection, stoma, vital capacity less than 1500 cc and external catheter.

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Physical therapist must include hydrotherapy sessions in neuromuscularskeletal conditions during the rehabilitation program for early functional recovery of a patient.

It causes muscular relaxation and decreased muscle spasm. There is a decreased pain due to warmth and support. Gravity is countered by buoyancy. Other benefits include increased muscle strength and endurance due to the greater resistance in water. Improvement in swelling, due to hydrostatic pressure has been recommended.

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With hydrotherapy we have enhanced balance and stabilization and improved enjoyment and confidence to move better.

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